May 2012 Archives

May 17, 2012 3:23 PM

U.S. Mobile Data: More Bricks, Less Straw

As punishment for requesting their freedom, the Egyptian Pharaoh told the Israelite slaves that they had to maintain their quota of bricks, but with less of an essential input: straw.  The burden of meeting demand with less resources applies as well in today's mobile services marketplace.  Wireless carriers face demands for greater bandwidth to support growing mobile data services but, for the intermediate term, cannot expect additional spectrum capacity--it's essential input--on either a firm-specific or industry-wide basis.  

It's unanimous: no matter who you talk to about wireless data, everyone agrees that "more bricks, less straw" is the unavoidable policy.  Thus, as wireless data demand continues to show no sign of abating, wireless service providers will simply have to make do with less than optimal spectrum capacity. So if we're stuck in a "more bandwidth demand, less capacity supply" world, how do we solve the problem of how to ration capacity?  

Who Needs Spectrum When You Can Upgrade Your Capacity?

So what's a wireless operator to do?  Well, for starters, you upgrade existing capacity like crazy by constantly deploying the most efficient technology.  But this isn't cheap.  Since wireless data exploded in 2007 with the iPhone, AT&T alone has gone through a 3G upgrade, an HSPA upgrade, an HSPA+ upgrade, and, more recently, is in the midst of an upgrade to LTE.  

Other companies have accelerated their own pace of upgrades as well.  From December '06 (right before the iPhone launch) through December '11 (when most firms still have a long way to go to realize full LTE deployment) industry capex has increased by almost 50%, according to CTIA (the actual numbers are in a report that I can't afford, so take my word for it).  But, even these improvements won't keep up with surging demand.

With No Spectrum Relief In Sight, Do You Play The Price Card?

Given the limited options for rationing capacity another, though unpopular, move is to raise prices.  Over the last several months we've seen AT&T raise data prices, after realizing that the government was not--anytime soon--going to allow AT&T to efficiently augment its own capacity.  Verizon quickly followed suit.  For now, Sprint appears to be content to let its shareholders shoulder the costs of increased wireless data demand.  But to be sure, increased demand without increased supply does create network strain--regardless of who pays.

Last week, at the CTIA Conference, Chairman Genachowski maintained/reasoned/disputed that the failure of the AT&T and T-Mobile merger last year had anything to do with AT&T's decision to raise prices.  Yet, the Chairman knows better, as he has been a leading prophet of the spectrum shortage.    

How to Recover Costs of Spectrum-less Capacity Expansion?

Given the costs of constantly upgrading capacity, how does a carrier manage excess data demand?  As I indicated above, raising prices sounds like a simple solution, but must account for the fact that big data users are contract customers.  That's how smartphones, and data plans become affordable, and predictable.  

You see, the problem with raising prices for wireless data is that you can really only raise prices to the marginal customer (i.e., the person who's not your customer yet).  Crazy, right?  "Raising prices" is a statement of frustration and designed to curb consumption.  Carriers are telling prospective customers that the network is nearing capacity and use of the remaining capacity will cost you. This is a horrible situation--who wants to be the (unpopular Redskins owner) Dan Snyder of wireless data?

If Sophisticated Buyers Want to Subsidize Consumers, Let Them!

Carriers know that raising prices for mobile data, or throttling data speeds to the largest users of mobile data, is no way to treat your biggest fans.  But with the popularity of mobile device applications, which constantly stream information to and from the customer's phone, customers can unintentionally (and unnecessarily) stress capacity.  Applications can distort data consumption in a way that even the most conscientious web surfers cannot offset.

So, earlier this year, at a conference in Barcelona, an AT&T executive suggested that maybe some applications providers would want to buy capacity in bulk in order to assure their customers that using the desired app wouldn't cause the customer to exceed their usage cap, or become subject to throttling.  Not a bad idea, right?  I mean the applications developer knows how much bandwidth their customers use, and they have a lot more buying power than the consumer.  

Given the public's embrace of mobile data, and the cost of continually augmenting capacity, especially for firms with sub-optimal spectrum allocations, one would think the "public interest" would support options that allow customers to still enjoy wireless data, but at a lower cost/consumption threshold.  One would think . . . .

But Don't Tell Public Knowledge!

The AT&T suggestion seemed harmless enough, but the reaction from the self-proclaimed public interest group Public Knowledge was alarmingly critical.  Then again, this is the same group that published a paper arguing that all wireless carriers should provide flat-rated mobile data service.  The irony, of course, is that flat-rated price structures cannot be profitable unless the majority of users pay for more data than they consume.

The notion of "more bricks, less straw" is, for regulators and service providers, an unfortunate and dystopic reality.  Uniquely, Public Knowledge seems to relish the "more megabytes, less capacity" future with a fondness that can't help but be compared with how the ancient Egyptian brick consumers' lobby must have felt . . . right before the brick supply crashed.

May 9, 2012 6:42 PM

At CTIA: Dropped Opportunites Exceed Dropped Calls

[In case no one noticed, I've been on a "Vision Quest" for the last few months; but, in the words of the great John Riggins, "I'm bored, I'm broke, and I'm back."]

One thing I've noticed during my self-imposed absence is that there really isn't much of a dialogue in the public discourse on telecom policy these days.  That's not a particularly astute observation for some areas of public discourse, like politics.  After all, anyone can tell you that the big political parties mischaracterize each other and talk past one another all the time.  But telecom issues aren't especially political, so what's the harm in listening to what someone is saying and--if you want to respond--providing a thoughtful response?  

No where was the unfortunate temptation to characterize, rather than accept and address, an opponent's arguments more on display as it was in Chairman Genachowski's remarks at the CTIA show yesterday.  Rather than respond to AT&T's CEO Randall Stephenson's contention that the Commission's decision to oppose AT&T's purchase of T-Mobile had caused AT&T to increase its retail prices for wireless data, the Chairman chose to mischaracterize and dismiss Stephenson's observation.  This was unfortunate, and a missed opportunity by the Chairman to validate a different view of the same spectrum shortage the Chairman has sought to publicize.

While Stephenson's statement made headlines last week in advance of the CTIA show, AT&T's Stephenson has made this same observation consistently, in both December, and over 3 months ago in a conference call with shareholders and analysts.
 
Chairman Genachowski, to his credit, has been one of the most vocal advocates for the need for more spectrum for the wireless industry.  The Chairman has, for most of his tenure as FCC Chairman, understood that demand for wireless data services is outstripping the supply of spectrum and the ability of wireless operators to use different techniques to most efficiently use the spectrum that they have.  The Chairman made all of these points in his remarks yesterday at CTIA.

Randall Stephenson, AT&T's CEO, has said nothing inconsistent with the facts the Chairman has used to argue for the need for more wireless spectrum to be brought to market.  It only stands to reason that if there is insufficient spectrum (on an industry-wide basis) to satisfy the growth in aggregate demand for wireless data, then spectrum shortages will affect some firms earlier than others.  The first firms to feel the spectrum crunch will necessarily be the first firms to react by managing demand (because input supplies are static).  And, the only way to manage demand is through price increases. Indeed, avoiding this inevitable result of spectrum scarcity was AT&T's justification for its proposed merger with T-Mobile.

But, rather than accept the perspective of one of the industry's first firms to feel the spectrum crunch, the FCC Chairman chose to conflate the observations of AT&T's Stephenson into two arguments that Stephenson never makes.  The first is that wireless competition is bad for consumers, and the second is that competition is bad for spectrum efficiency.

After reading Stephenson's observations, it makes more sense to interpret his statements as being that the "new" wireless industry is characterized by many firms lacking minimum efficient scale to meet the projected demand of their consumers.  This is hardly a radical statement.  Many industries demand significant scale in order to satisfy consumer demand--one reason we don't see "mom and pop" microchip manufacturers.  A permanent increase in demand, which the Chairman perceives as a good thing, may well require a higher, firm-specific level of access to the vital input of spectrum.

The solution, which would best benefit consumers, would be for the Chairman to recognize that--if he is confident that more spectrum will come on the market soon--there cannot be any one static notion of how many firms should be in the market.  In a world where spectrum can be expanded, so can the number of competitors.  Any backward-looking concept of how competition should look reflects nothing more than an irrational time bias.  In other words, if adequate spectrum (to support more firms in the market) is coming, then near term consolidation--if it maximizes industry output--will not lead to a less beneficial result for consumers in the long run.

Singapore is actively considering just such an approach, by reserving specific future spectrum for a new competitor.  Such an approach introduces the concept of "contestability" in a very real and certain way.  Firms in the market are allowed to maximize current efficiency by using optimal blocks of spectrum.  Yet these same firms understand that they will be facing certain competition by a potentially lower cost competitor in the foreseeable future.  

Wireless broadband consumers benefit from solutions, not rhetoric.  The FCC should stop viewing market participants as obstacles to consumer satisfaction, but rather as indispensable vehicles to satisfying consumer demand.  In a world where a vital input like spectrum can be expanded, albeit slowly, does it really make sense to freeze firms' spectrum reserves at a pre-wireless-broadband level?